The GO File Format Guide documents the structure and syntax of the files available on the GO website, to assist users who need to read, write parsers for, or create these files. The following file formats are documented separately:
Annotation is the process of assigning GO terms to gene products. The annotation data in the GO database is contributed by members of the GO Consortium, and the Consortium is continuously encouraging new groups to start contributing their annotations. The list of links below offer details on the GO annotation policies and the annotation process, as well as direct users to other pages of interest on GO annotation conventions, the standard operating procedures used by some consortium members, and the GO annotation file format guide.
The Gene Ontology defines the universe of concepts relating to gene functions (‘GO terms’), and how these functions are related to each other (‘relations’). It is constantly revised and expanded as biological knowledge accumulates.
The Gene Ontology (GO) is a comprehensive resource of computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. As such, it is extensively used by the biomedical research community for the analysis of -omics and related data. The structured knowledge in the ontology is a crucial part of the global biomedical informatics infrastructure.
A GO annotation consists of a GO term associated with a specific reference that describes the work or analysis upon which the association between a specific GO term and gene product is based. Each annotation must also include an evidence code to indicate how the annotation to a particular term is supported. Although evidence codes do reflect the type of work or analysis described in the cited reference which supports the GO term to gene product association, they are not necessarily a classification of types of experiments/analyses.
The gene association files submitted by GO Consortium members are shown in the tables below. Files are in the GO annotation file format and are compressed using the UNIX gzip utility. Please see the appropriate README file for further details on the annotation set. Any errors or omissions in annotations should be reported by writing to the GO helpdesk.