ontology

Species-Specific Terms

Handling Species Specificity

One of the biggest problems for a controlled vocabulary is choosing term names and definitions that will unambiguously identify a component, function or process. If a word or phrase refers to different entities or processes depending upon the organism, subclasses are created based on differentiating characteristics, such structure, physical composition or order of subprocesses, rather than by identifying the taxonomic group in which the component or process occurs.

Ontology Documentation

The Gene Ontology defines the universe of concepts relating to gene functions (‘GO terms’), and how these functions are related to each other (‘relations’). It is constantly revised and expanded as biological knowledge accumulates.

The Reference Genome Annotation Project

The GO Consortium coordinated an effort to maximize and optimize GO annotations for a large and representative set of key genomes, known as 'reference genomes'. The Reference Genome Annotation Project aimed to completely annotate twelve reference genomes, producing a resource that may effectively seed automatic annotation efforts of other genomes.

Use and License

Gene Ontology Consortium data and data products are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. A human-readable version and explanation is available at the Creative Commons website. For information about how to properly credit data use, please review the Creative Commons FAQ or contact the GO Helpdesk.

Download Mappings

Mappings of External Classification Systems to GO

The Gene Ontology is not the only attempt to build structured controlled vocabularies for genome annotation. To aid users, the GO Consortium provides mappings of its terms to those in a number of external vocabularies.